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        中標合同不得背離招投標文件實質性內容
        發布時間:2018-11-21

        案情

        A企业中標承建某政府工程。對于工程款結算,招標文件規定以審計結論為準,A企业在投標承諾中予以響應。后經備案的中標合同卻增加約定“逾期未完成審計,按承包人的報請價結算工程款”。現雙方對該約定的效力發生爭議。


        評析

        筆者認為,招、投標文件是訂立中標合同的基礎和依據,后者無權對前者的實質性內容進行變更,否則即便經過備案,也應當確認變更無效。


        工程款確定屬于招、投標文件實質性內容

        合同法第三十條規定:

        “承諾的內容應當與要約的內容一致。受邀人對要約的內容作出實質性變更的,為新要約。有關合同標的、數量、質量、價款或者報酬、履行期限、履行地點和方式、違約責任和解決爭議方法等的變更,是對要約內容實質性變更。”


        可見,工程款確定屬于建設工程施工合同的實質性條款。在招、投標交易中,投標是要約,中標通知為承諾,而招、投標文件則是記錄該締約過程的書面載體,故作為中標合同實質性條款的工程款確定自然亦屬于招、投標文件的實質性內容。


        中標合同不得改變招投標文件實質性內容

        招投標法第四十六條規定:

        “招標人和中標人應當自中標通知書發出之日起三十日內,按照招標文件和中標人的投標文件訂立書面合同。招標人和中標人不得再行訂立背離合同實質性內容的其他協議。”

        因中標合同實質自中標通知書送達中標人時即已成立,至于嗣后簽訂的書面合同,只不過是招標人與中標人對締約過程中用以表達雙方真實意思表示的招、投標文件的一種承繼和固化而已,這就決定了中標合同本身不能與招、投標文件相沖突,否則招投標法第四十六條的強制性規定即被架空。因為當事人為實現不法目的,會以中標合同變更招、投標文件實質性內容的方式輕易規避招標人和中標人不得再行訂立背離中標合同實質性內容的其他協議的法律適用。

        本案中,政府工程屬于法定招標項目,當事人在沿襲招、投標文件確定的工程款計價方法外,又增加選擇性條款,約定以中標人單方報價為結算依據。雖說這在一定程度上有利于約束招標人,促進誠信履約,但是從維護公平競爭的招投標市場環境和國家利益出發,避免招標人與中標人打著意思自治的幌子,侵占財政資金和排斥其他競爭者,勢必要犧牲小價值而保全大追求,應當認定該增加約定是對招、投標文件實質性內容的變更,當然無效、確定無效,也自始無效。

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